Peopling of the Americas


Bercuson, David J., et al. Colonies: Canada to 1867. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1992. Print.
971 BER

Brown, George, Eleanor Harman and Marsh Jeanneret. Canada in North America to 1800. Vancouver: The Copp Clark Publishing Co. Ltd., 1960. Print.
See chapter 2: “The First North Americans"
971 BRO

Bumsted, J.M. The Peoples of Canada. Toronto: Oxford University Press Canada, 1992. Print.
See chapter 1: “The People of Early North America”
971 BUM

Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada’s First Nations. 3rd. ed. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press, 2002. Print.
See chapter 1: “And the People Came”
971.004 DIC   

Francis, R. Douglas, Richard Jones and Donald B. Smith. Origins: Canadian History to Confederation. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart and Winston of Canada, 1992. Print.
See chapter 1: “The First Canadians”
971 FRA         

Koppel, Tom. Lost World: Rewriting Prehistory: How New Science Is Tracing America's Ice Age Mariners. New York: Atria Books, 2003. Print.
930.102 804 KOP

Meltzer, David J. First Peoples in a New World: Colonizing Ice Age America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009. Print.
970.01 MEL

Morrison, Bruce R. and C. Roderick Wilson, eds.  Native Peoples: The Canadian Experience. 2nd ed. Toronto: McClelland, 1986. Print.
See chapter 2: “First Nations Prehistory and Canadian History”
970.004 NAT  

Page, Daniel H. Heritage of the North American Indian People. Ottawa: Borealis Press, 1982. Print. 
See chapter 1: “Introduction”
970.004 PAG 

Price, John. Indians of Canada: Cultural Dynamics. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall, 1979. Print.
971.004 PRI

Bercuson, David J., et al. Colonies: Canada to 1867. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 1992. Print.
971 BER


“Coming into America.” Scientific American Frontiers. Chedd-Angier Production Company, 2004. DVD.
970.01 COM


Canada's First Nations
Examines scientific theories of when and how people migrated to the North American continent.

CBC News: Technology and Science: Ancient poop gives insight into first North Americans

Code Breakers: The Nature of Things With David Suzuki

Daily Nature and Science News and Headlines: National Geographic News
This site contains numerous articles. Search using terms such as:
• First Americans
• Clovis
• Bering Strait

First People of North America
Ontario Archeological Society

Humans in North America earlier than thought

Migration and Population Models of North America and the Implications they hold for Clovis
A paper by Myrisa K. Bird, Department of Anthropology at the University of Kentucky

Nova: America's Stone Age Explorers

Peopling of North America

Peopling of the Americas. Clovis First?

Peopling North America: Population Movements & Migration

The late Pleistocene of the Mojave Desert, the peopling of the Americas, and terminal Pleistocene Extinctions
Proceedings from the 2001 Millennium Conference

The Paleoindian Occupation of the Americas: The Archaeological Record and What It Can Tell Us About the Early Inhabitants of the New World.
A paper by Ryan M. Ellsworth, Department of Anthropology at the University of Missouri- Columbia

The Peopling of the American Continents

The Peopling of the Americas by Randy Daniel

The Peopling of the New World: Perspectives from Molecular Anthropology
A paper by Theodore G. Schurr, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.



The following is merely a sample of articles found on EBSCO

Adler, Robert. "The First Americans." New Scientist 190.2546 (2006): 42-46. Canadian Reference Centre. 21 October 2013.

This article reports that a team of geoarchaeologists from Liverpool John Moores University in Great Britain have found 160 of the pockmarks on the quarry floor of a volcanic rock in Pueblo, Mexico. The footprints are the new front line of a long-running battle over the peopling of the Americas, the last great land mass to be occupied by humans. In the past decade or so numerous researchers have made discoveries that challenge the Clovis First theory, and archaeologists now agree that there is clear evidence of human occupation at least 1000 years before the Clovis hunters arrived.

Balter, Michael. "Whence the First Americans?" Science Now (2005): 4-5. Canadian Reference Centre. Web. 21 October 2013.

This article attempts to find the origin of first American. Not so long ago, the origins of the first Americans seemed fairly certain. Beginning about 12,000 years ago, people from northeast Asia entered North America via the Bering land bridge in several waves of immigration. These ancestors of present-day Native Americans spread out to populate the entire New World. But in recent years, some archaeologists have argued that the first immigrants to the Americas were people from Southeast Asia who share ancestors with native Australians and Melanesians.

Begley, Sharon, and Andrew Murr. "The First Americans." Newsweek 133.17 (1999): 50. Canadian Reference Centre. Web. 21 October 2013.

This article discusses the inhabitants of Stone Age America and various migration theories.

Bethune, Brian. "Mystery of the First North Americans." Maclean's 114.12 (2001): 24. Canadian Reference Centre. Web. 21 October 2013.

“Mystery of the First North Americans” examines the history of human settlement in the Americas. Evidence which suggests that human migration to the Americas was much earlier than scholars believed possible due to glacial coverage is examined. The author also examines the possibility that humans came to the Americas in waves, and from Europe, Australia, and Africa.

Bradley, Bruce, and Dennis Stanford. "The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible Paleolithic route to the New World." World Archaeology 36.4 (2004): 459-478. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 21 October 2013.

The early peopling of the New World has been a topic of intense research since the early twentieth century. Researchers have suggested that the exclusive focus of research on a Beringian entry point has not been productive. Evidence has accumulated over the past two decades indicating that the earliest origin of people in North America may have been from south-western Europe during the last glacial maximum. In this summary the authors outline a theory of a Solutrean origin for Clovis culture and briefly present the archaeological data supporting this assertion.

Fiedel, Stuart J. "The Peopling of the New World: Present Evidence, New Theories, and Future Directions." Journal of Archaeological Research 8.1 (2000): 39-103. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 21 October 2013.

This paper reviews the current archaeological and biological evidence, in America and northern Asia, for the origins of Native Americans, assesses models of the colonization process in the light of new data and a revised chronology, and suggests avenues for future research.

Hunt, Joan. "Who were the first Americans?" Cobblestone 14.4 (1993): 15. Primary Search.  Web. 21 October 2013.

This article describes archaeologists' efforts to uncover tools, bones and other artifacts of the early North American peoples.

Lemonick, Michael D., Andrea Dorfman, and Dan Cray. "Who Were The First Americans?" Time 167.11 (2006): 44. Middle Search Plus. Web. 21 October 2013.

This article looks at the remains of a human skeleton, known as the Kennewick Man, in Benton County, Washington. Archaeologists and scientists found that the Kennewick Man has physical characteristics similar to Polynesian, Ainu, or southern Asian populations. The article describes how the findings from Kennewick Man affect the debate on migration theories to America. Genetics point to Siberia as an original homeland for the first Americans

Monastersky, Richard. "Digging Up Dirt on the First Americans: Sand Dune in Virginia Sparks New Debate." Chronicle of Higher Education 46.34 (2000): A23. Canadian Reference Centre. Web. 21 October 2013.

"Digging Up Dirt” focuses on Cactus Hill, an archeological site near the Nottoway River in southeast Virginia. Artifacts found at this location suggest that the Clovis people of 13,500 years ago may not have been the first settlers on the site.

Parfit, Michael, and Kenneth Garrett. "Hunt for the First Americans." National Geographic 198.6 (2000): 40. Canadian Reference Centre. Web. 21 October 2013.

"Hunt for the First Americans" discusses scientific debate over who the first Americans were, where they came from and when they arrived.

Spotts, Peter N. "First Americans may have crossed Atlantic 50,000 years ago." Christian Science Monitor 18 Nov. 2004: 1. Middle Search Plus. Web. 21 October 2013.

In a discovery sure to set off a firestorm of debate over human migration to the western hemisphere, archaeologists in South Carolina say they have uncovered evidence that people lived in eastern North America at least 50,000 years ago - far earlier than any previously known human presence.

Westrup, Hugh. "Who were the first Americans?" Current Science 85.3 (1999): 4. Canadian Reference Centre. Web. 21 October 2013.

Discusses attempts to discover the first inhabitants in North America.